Installing the operating system
a point of view "stepping into the cloud"
The very first step is finding the needed reliable hardware to run our future operations, no matter how large this becomes. For me and many others, this is provided by linode.com at $5 a month to get us started, with no lock in contract.
Then off we go on this wonderful adventure by pointing the browser at http://linode.com and in the process, as well as having a ton of fun, perhaps designing a useful product on this now ubiquitous ever expanding internet. After all, the would could always do with something useful.
Clicking on the getting started …..
Well, that’s what I did and this is what follows.
I use my email address at gmail, as my thinking is: I want to have linode host my own domain name and if I use my personal email address on my domain, in the instillation process here, maybe I loose that email address for a while as well as anything linode might email me, I might not get those emails. Possible problem solved, use gmail for the time being. Then all we have to do is invent a new Username and new password, forcing myself to write all that down in my handy and extremely secure password book. Yep, use a real note book made of real paper; the sort that can not be hacked or stolen, I keeping it in a safe place ( occasionally making safe copies stored elsewhere ). I like being careful.
Always useful to watch what other data based backed web site do, soon we might be doing something similar. This “Almost there!” message is a nice one.
Now we enter in our details, with this nice form:
Interesting to watch what other sites provide for “sign in” forms:
Now, this is where things start to get interesting from a programmer’s pint of view, we get to choose what type of hardware to run our new system on, and where in the world we want to have it located:
Next, we click on our new hardware ( what they call a linode ), so we can configure it.
Clicking on “Deploy an Image” will take us to where we can install an operating system of our choice.
Here I suggest we choose “Debian 8” for the operating system, with a swap space of 256 MB and allocate all of the disk space for the operating systems files. These number can always be increased easily, but changing the operating system is definitely, not easy. A tip to remember myself
The Linode Manager shows as in real time, the progress of building and installing the operating system…. just a matter of seconds, not minutes.
With the operating system now installed, the next exciting step is to press the “boot” button and bring the system to life.
Confirm the Boot.
And the Linode Manager again displays a real-time progress of the system now booting up.
When the system comes up, the first task is to create a secure method to log into this new remote system, in such a way that we can easily edit this system from our own computer. This is enabled through the Linode Manger via “Remote Access” on the menu bar, and clicking their “Lauch Lish Console”.
This is where we log in for the first time, using the user name: root and the password we created above.
Next, we configure things so the user “root” can not be used to log straight into the system remotely. That way, another username must be used first, before ever switching to super user mode. Makes things much hard for hackers to guess our passwords, as well as knowing who is logged in at any one time.
So we edit the configuration file that controls remote logins via ssh, changing two settings as shown. Of course any other character editor works fine besides vi, such as vim and nano.
# vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config
# /etc/init.d/ssh restart # adduser roger ( or whatever name you like to use ) # apt-get update # apt-get install sudo ( this "sudo" will allow the user "roger" to obtain super user privileges ) # usermod -a -G sudo roger # cat /etc/group | more ( to see the new group )
Before leaving the Linode Lish Console we perhaps the last time, we might like to set the system’s clock to our local time, so we can read the log files in our time zone.
# dpkg-reconfigure tzdata # reboot ( so the log files will from now on have the local times )
On a Mac we open the Terminal program and we type in ssh followed by your log in name ( in my case it is james ) followed by the @ sign, followed by the ip address of your now running linorde server ( which is 126.96.36.199 here ).
Reception-Server:~ home$ ssh. email@example.com After logging in, to get going as "root": # su
To harden our system against hackers and bots, we next install a wonderful program called “fail2ban”,
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